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Wendy Deneise. Jelita Sopani. Allyson Wicker. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. Data for later years are incomplete ICES, Time trends in 28 glass eel recruitment data series.
Data from ICES Dashed lines: North Sea area; solid lines: elsewhere. Bold lines: general trends - see ICES for details on individual series and the trend analysis. Note the logarithmic scale of the vertical axis.
Since the mids, attention of managers and scientists focused on optimistic compensation measures, including artificial reproduction and restocking, but these measures have failed to sustain the stock Dekker and Beaulaton, a. Artificial reproduction has not been achieved. Instead, young recruits are taken from the wild and raised in indoor culture facilities, a practice known as aquaculture. Aquaculture made a slow start in the s, and since , its production exceeds the fishing yield in the wild Figure 1. Traditionally, eel fisheries throughout Europe have been managed as freshwater fisheries, on a very local geographical scale.
Objectives were often unspecified, and governmental actions predominantly focused on local conflict resolution, among fishers or between fishers and non-fishing stakeholders involved in water management, hydropower generation or many land uses Dekker, In the late s, technical developments glass eel restocking, eel-ladders, gears, hot-smoking, long-distance trade, etcetera led to a rapid exchange of expertise all over the continent, but not to coordinated action. It was only in , that German glass eel imports from England to Hamburg for restocking were shared with neighbouring countries—but that cooperation ended in World War II, and did not resume afterwards Dekker and Beaulaton, b.
Minimum legal size limits over time in Swedish lakes and rivers, by ICES subdivision SD into which they drain; some lakes are identified individually, by name.
Dashed: applied to silver eel in lakes but not in rivers, and to all yellow eel; solid: applied to all life stages in all waters. For coastal waters, another equally complex set of minimum size limits applied.
After Dekker et al. The majority of eel fisheries are small-scaled and scattered over rural areas. Larger concentrations e. Comacchio, Lough Neagh, and L. IJsselmeer are rare, and jointly, these exploit only a few percent of the total stock Dekker, More often, fisheries, and its interactions with non-fishing stakeholders, occur in very local settings with little governmental involvement. Consequently, the boundaries between documented and undocumented, commercial and non-commercial fisheries, recreational catch and poaching can be extremely vague ICES, For the interactions with non-fishing stakeholders, there is ample evidence of early e.
Commonly, eel fishing ranked below the interest of competing stakeholders e. Impacts thus being accepted, sometimes mitigated e. In most cases, governments initiated mitigation and compensation programmes, often funding and controlling implementation themselves. Ultimately, the decline of the stock over the whole continent led to a call for international action EIFAC, ; Dekker et al.
Although this group eventually discussed the need for continent-wide protection in the s, its recommendations primarily focused on national or even localised protective measures. The state of Monaco was the first to propose continent-wide coordinated action, under the Bern Convention—but when others questioned the need for action, Monaco disappointedly withdrew its proposal. Meanwhile, the European Commission had asked Cavaco, and received scientific advice ICES, on the alarming state of the stock.
Following a period of stakeholder consultation and deliberations, the Commission proposed establishing detailed targets for eel abundance in each life stage, across all rivers in Europe Anonymous, Existing knowledge, however, was considered insufficient to develop such a system. Emergency measures were investigated, but equitable and effective measures were hard to find.
Ultimately, a fortnightly closure of all fisheries throughout Europe was proposed Anonymous, Estimates of silver eel runs and management targets per eel management unit, reported in This figure presents the estimates as reported by the countries—inconsistencies in assessment methods and in interpretations exist. For each area, estimates are given for the current silver eel run cur. Data from ICES, Since the end of , trade of European eel to or from the EU has been prohibited; internal trade is not affected.
In past decades, radically different steering frameworks for management of the European eel stock and fisheries have been attempted: uncoordinated local action traditional ; uniform actions throughout Europe initial discussions in EU ; and a hierarchical system of distributed control the Eel Regulation. The first has failed; the second was considered unworkable; and the third is now sliding into an impasse.
Obviously, this typology is not set in stone, but the line of reasoning on which it is built might shed some light on the issues involved in the current impasse. First, I discuss each of these dimensions for eel; then I type-cast the eel in this typology, and type-cast the steering model of the Eel Regulation. Table 1. Horizontal: uncertainty in knowledge; vertical: ambivalence of goals; shading: distribution of power.
Historical sources rarely identify the goals of management actions, but their actions and expectations often allow us to deduce implicit objectives Dekker and Beaulaton, a , b. Before the mids, fishers have been exploiting local eel stocks, and conflict resolution between them has been the prime goal of governmental interventions. Other fisheries e. Additionally, commercial and recreational fishers often had conflicting interests. In the lates, non-fishing impacts had seriously deteriorated the habitats, and actions were initiated in many countries to expand or recover local eel fisheries.
Though stated objectives and actions were clearly and unanimously aiming to support the fisheries, a clash of interests with non-fishing stakeholders water managers and many land-based actors was the ultimate reason to act. At best, those non-fishing stakeholders intended to minimise their compensation costs for collateral damage to the eel stock, but otherwise, they had no objectives on eel by themselves. It was only in the late s, after the crash in glass eel recruitment had begun, that focus gradually shifted towards protection and recovery of the depleted stock.
Those objectives now dominate the discussions, though support for the waning fisheries is also pursued. Seeberg et al.